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Amazon . com Inc. struck a new blow to European Union’s efforts to wring more tax from big tech companies when the bloc’s second highest court sided with the company over a $300 million tax bill.

An EU court in Luxembourg on Wednesday annulled a 2017 decision from the European Commission, the EU’s top antitrust authority, that had ordered Amazon to pay 250 million euros in taxes to Luxembourg, the latest of several big EU tax decisions to be overturned.

The decision is a significant blow to Margrethe Vestager, an executive vice president of the commission who is leading a campaign to curb alleged excesses by some of the world’s largest tech companies, including Amazon and Alphabet Inc.’s Google.

Ms. Vestager had already been rebuked once by the same court in a similar case. The General Court overturned her 2016 order that Ireland must recoup some €13 billion in taxes from Apple. Ms. Vestager has since appealed that case to the Court of Justice, the EU’s top court.

Ms. Vestager’s tax cases were among her first big salvos against tech companies in her role running EU competition enforcement. She later fined Google three times for alleged abuses of dominance, which the company is appealing. In recent months, she has also filed formal antitrust charges against Amazon and Apple for their treatment of rivals.

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